oil on canvas, 91cm x 61cm, 2012, £450
Landforms created in eruptions beneath icecaps are conspicuous features of the volcanic zones of Iceland, and of course eruptions still occur frequently under present day ice caps. In such eruptions up to 95% of the energy released may be used in melting ice .
The interaction of this melt water and the magma has a major effect on volcanic activity and on the morphology of resulting landforms. Low water pressures lead to pillow lava formation while magma fragmentation and explosive activity predominates as the water pressure reduces. Whether or not the eruption breaches the ice or water surface to interact directly with air determines the major division of landform resulting. Where this is the case Tuyas with subaerial lava caps are formed. Where the landform is created almost wholly below the ice or water suface Tindars form.
As the Name suggests, Kalfstindar is an example of the latter, a tindar ridge. Charactistically tindars form a row of peaks at semi-regular intervals corresponding to a volcanic fissures where activity is quickly concentrated into a row of craters. The largest tindar ridges such as Kalfstindar are up to 9km in length.